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FT232R USB UART Driver for Windows

The FT232R UART device is a USB to serial interface chip from a company called Future Technology Devices International, or FTDI. The chip is used in a lot of USB-to-serial dongles that are needed for devices with a serial port. Since most modern computers don’t have a serial port (COM port) anymore, using a USB dongle enables such devices to connect to a computer. For this type of dongle to be used with Windows, an FT232R USB UART driver for Windows will be required.

Installing an FT232R USB UART driver

To manually install a Windows driver for this type of device, you will first need to download the driver. In some cases, the dongle manufacturer will offer a driver download. Just visit the support site for the manufacturer and download the driver for your specific Windows version.

After downloading, run the driver executable, or follow the manual driver installation instructions to install the driver.

If the dongle manufacturer does not offer drivers, visit the FTDI site for the latest generic FT232R USB UART Drivers. You can use either the Virtual COM port drivers or the D2XX Direct drivers. After downloading, extract the ZIP file contents to a folder. Next, use the instructions from the link above to manually install the driver in Windows.

FT232R USB UART Driver

In the Device Manager, the dongle may show as an Unknown device, a FT232R USB UART device, or as a USB Serial Converter. If the device does not show, use the option Show hidden devices in the View menu, or add a setting to the System variables to show non-present devices.

FT232R USB UART device

USB serial convertor

If want to automatically find and download the latest FT232R USB UART driver for Windows, we recommend using our DriverFinder program. Based on all the hardware devices in your PC, the program will find the latest drivers for those devices and recommend driver updates.

For more on USB to serial converters and their drivers, also check the article on the Prolific PL2303 driver for Windows.

Core Isolation Memory Integrity Incompatible Drivers

One of the new protection features in Windows 11 is called Core isolation. This feature helps protect against vulnerabilities that may harm the system. It is also referred to as virtualization-based security (or VBS). An important aspect of this protection is the setting memory integrity. Enabling this setting will allow Windows to shield the memory from bad code or invalid access.

A limitation of memory integrity protection is the fact that it can be impossible to enable it due to incompatible drivers. Device drivers are an important piece of any operating system, including Windows 11. Since device drivers enable communication with hardware devices, they are operating at a high-security level in Windows with access to critical system resources.

Even with systems that had no problems in the past, Windows updates can result in the core isolation option being disabled with no obvious cause.

In this article, we show how to enable memory integrity and how to deal with incompatible drivers that may block the enabling of the core isolation protection.

How to enable memory integrity

  1. Open the Settings by pressing the Windows + I keys, or use the Start menu.
  2. In the Settings window, click Privacy & security (1) in the left-hand pane.

    Open Windows Security
  3. Next, click Windows Security (2) in the right-hand pane.
  4.  Then, click Device security in the right-hand pane. This will open a new window called Windows Security.
  5. Under Core isolation, click the Core isolation details link.
    Core isolation details
  6. Now toggle the switch for Memory integrity from Off to On.
    Enable memory integrity in Windows 11
    Windows will start checking for driver compatibility before enabling the memory integrity option.
  7. Close the Windows Security window and the Settings windows.

After this, the core isolation in Windows 11 is enabled, helping protect the memory from invalid access. This will add an extra layer of protection against malware on your PC.

Incompatible drivers

So what happens with incompatible drivers are installed in the system? In that case, enabling the Memory integrity feature will fail and the Core isolation will not be working.

Memory integrity disabled

To find out which drivers are incompatible, click the Review incompatible drivers link.

You will now see one or more entries of drivers (.sys file names) that are incompatible with the Windows 11 driver system. That means, the device for which the driver is intended may work fine, but the driver is not fully compatible with the Windows 11 security system. This may happen if older drivers are installed (e.g. Windows 7 or Windows 10 drivers).

Clicking the downward pointing arrow to the right of the driver’s name will reveal details about the driver. This information, date, version, and INF name can be used in the process to solve the driver incompatibility.

stm_tpm.sys driver

It is also possible that no imcompatibvle drivers are shown. In that case, try the manual enabling option.

Solve driver incompatibility issues

The simplest choice is to simply leave the Core isolation feature in Windows 11 disabled. That way, the incompatible driver can still be used and the device will function. Considering the possible vulnerability to the system this is not the preferred option. Only when no compatible driver for the device can be found and the device is really needed would you use this option.

The better solution to enabling the memory integrity option in Windows 11 is to replace any incompatible drivers with a newer, compatible version of the device driver.

Our example shows the stm_tpm.sys driver, which is an STMicroelectronics Trusted Platform Module. Other frequently occurring examples are the ene.sys driver and the wdcsam.sys (or wdcsam64_prewin8.sys), which are MSI and Western Digital drivers respectively.

#1 Update the driver from the Device Manager

Replacing an incompatible driver with a newer version is the best way to guarantee the driver will be compatible with Windows 11. Use the Device Manager to check for updates for the device.

Update incompatible driver

In this process, Windows 11 will check the Microsoft Update Catalog for a newer version of the driver for the specific device. Take note that the device does not show any error in this example. The device and driver are functioning without device errors in Windows 11.

Note: If you do not see the problematic driver, use the option Show hidden devices in the View menu to show additional devices with their drivers.

Show hidden device in device manager Windows 11

In case any device is listed with an exclamation mark, it indicates a problem. Updating the driver for the device may fix the problem, otherwise check the error code for the device to solve the issue.

#2 Uninstall the driver to enable memory integrity

If the incompatible driver is not loaded and used by Windows, the memory integrity option can be turned on. Use the device manager to Uninstall the device, and then use the command prompt (or PowerShell) to delete the driver using the pnputil /delete-driver command.

pnputil /delete-driver oem97.inf /uninstall /force

Note: It is important to uninstall the device first, otherwise the command above will fail because the driver package is still in use.

The INF file name used in the command can be found in the details of the incompatible drivers in the Windows Security window. See the Published name detail. The /uninstall parameter ensures the driver package is removed from any devices that use the driver. The /force parameter allows the driver to be deleted even when it is in use.

Once the device is uninstalled and the driver is deleted, enable the memory integrity option as described earlier. If it still fails, try the other solutions listed here.

#3 Manually replace the incompatible driver

If the device is needed, option #2 is not possible, since the device will not work without a driver. But if the automatic update of the incompatible driver also does not work, a manual solution is required.

Uninstall device for incompatible drivers

Use the Device Manager to uninstall the device. If Windows shows the option to Attempt to remove the driver for this device during the device uninstall, select that option. This option will not show for all devices and will only work if the driver is not in use by another device.

After this, find a new driver for the device on the manufacturer’s website. In the case of the wdcsam.sys error, the latest Western Digital drivers will solve the issue. Our ene.sys article has the details for a solution with that driver. For other manufacturers, their support site should provide the latest drivers if available.

Enable Memory Integrity using the Windows Registry

If the above steps do not resolve the issue, it is possible to force the activation of the memory integrity in Windows 10 and Windows 11 using the Windows Registry. Although it is possible to use the Registry Editor for this to manually add the required keys and entries, it is easier to execute the commands to insert the registry keys from the console. Below are the steps.

Open a command prompt window with administrator privileges.

Start Command Prompt with Administrator

Now execute the following commands one by one:

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "EnableVirtualizationBasedSecurity" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "RequirePlatformSecurityFeatures" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "Locked" /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard\Scenarios\HypervisorEnforcedCodeIntegrity" /v "Enabled" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard\Scenarios\HypervisorEnforcedCodeIntegrity" /v "Locked" /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

Each command should show that the operation completed successfully.

Enable memory integrity using the Windows registry,

After that, close the command prompt window (type “exit” followed by pressing the Enter key), and restart Windows.

Now check that the memory integrity option in Windows Security is enabled.

Note: The commands above are for Windows 10 version 1607 and later (including Windows 11). For earlier Windows 10 versions (1511 and below), use these commands.

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "EnableVirtualizationBasedSecurity" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "RequirePlatformSecurityFeatures" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "HypervisorEnforcedCodeIntegrity" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\DeviceGuard" /v "Unlocked" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

Note: Using the registry edit option can result in Windows showing the Memory Integrity option as “This setting is managed by your administrator“. If that is the case, revert the registry settings to undo the change.

ScanSnap iX500 Driver for Windows 10/11

If your ScanSnap iX500 scanner stopped working on Windows 10 or Windows 11, it is most likely due to a driver problem. Fujitsu updated their scanner software from ScanSnap Manager to ScanSnap Home. The latest software will also install the latest ScanSnap iX500 driver. Even though the iX500 model was introduced quite a few years ago (2013), it is still a popular and useful device.

The ScanSnap iX500 is a duplex color scanner for A4/Letter/Legal paper sizes with an automatic document feeder. Using the latest Fujitsu scanner software will allow you to to keep it working on the latest Windows versions.

Download the ScanSnap software

You can download the software driver from the Fujitsu support website to get the ScanSnap iX500 working on Windows 10 or Windows 11. Follow the steps below.

  1. Open a web browser and navigate to the Fujitsu ScanSnap software download page.
  2. Under Discontinued scanners, click the ScanSnap iX500 This will open the ScanSnap iX500 software downloads page.
    ScanSnap Software Download
  3. Next, select the Windows version in the dropdown list (1), and then click the Display software list button (2).
    ScanSnap iX500 Windows 10
  4. Under Setup Programs, click the Download link next to the SnapScan Home Download Installer 2.7.0 (the version number might be higher when you visit the page).
    Download snapscan home download Installer
  5. This will open a new page to download the installer. Make sure your browser does not have a popup blocker active, or the new window will not open. Select your location and then click the Download Installer
  6. Read the license agreement and click the Agree button to start the software download.
  7. The software installer will be downloaded (depending on your browser you may need to select a download location).
  8. Open a File Explorer window and navigate to the download location on your PC.
  9. Double-click the downloaded installer to execute it.
    Note: If you cannot execute the file, you may need to unblock it.
    • Right-click the file, and in the popup menu, select Properties.
    • In the General tab, select the checkbox Unblock (next to Security in the bottom of the window).
      Unblock ScanSnap IX500 driver installer file
    • Click the OK button.
  10. Follow the on-screen instructions to install the ScanSnap Home software.
    Note: Additional files are downloaded during installation, so make sure your Internet connection is active. Also check available disk space, as he fully installed software takes over 740 MB.
  11. Restart your computer when finished.

Reinstalling the software can also help if are facing problems scanning directly to email (like Outlook). Make sure to fully uninstall the existing version first.

Install the ScanSnap iX500 driver

After installing the ScanSnap Home software, the ScanSnap iX500 driver for the device can be installed.

  1. Execute the ScanSnap Home software.
  2. In the setup window, select the iX500 model and click the Start setup button.
    Install ScanSnap iX500 Driver
    Tip: The software not only allows installation of the iX500 driver, but also supports the ScanSnap iX1600 driver and all iX models in between.
  3. Make sure the scanner power is connected and that the scanner is connected to the computer via a USB cable.
  4. Click Next to continue.
  5. Ensure the device is powered on (blue or purple Scan button), and then click Next.
  6. Wait for the device to be installed.
  7. Click the Finish button.

After the connection setup finishes, the Windows driver for the iX500 will be installed and you can use the scanner with your Windows PC. Click the Scan button in the top-left corner to start scanning.

Need to find or update more device drivers for Windows? Download our DriverFinder program to automatically check your Windows PC for missing or outdated drivers.

For generic troubleshooting regarding the SnapScan IX500 device, you can also have a look at the Ricoh support page.


Can I still use the ScanSnap Manager with the iX500?

Yes, the ScanSnap Manager software can still be used for the iX500 for Windows 7 up to Windows 11. There will however be no new features and no updates with this software.

Can I keep my old scan settings?

Yes, if you switch from the ScanSnap Manager software to the ScanSnap Home software, you can keep your old scan settings. This entails creating a profile in the ScanSnap Home software and migrating the settings. For details on the migration, please see the instructions on the website.

Can I Install ScanSnap Home when I have ScanSnap Manager installed?

Yes, it is possible to have both the old and new software installed on the same configuration. When you install the new software, make sure the installation path is different (use the Custom install option). After installing the new version, you can safely delete the old software. Settings -> Apps -> ScanSnap Manager -> Uninstall.

How to fix the “Unable to connect with SnapScan” error?

First, make sure the latest version of the ScanSnap software is installed. Also, check that the Windows Image Acquisition service is running (starts automatically), and try changing the Log on as to a Local System account with the checkbox Allow service to interact with the desktop enabled.

The steps:

  1. Press the Windows + R keys to bring up the Run window.
  2. Enter services.msc and press Enter or click OK.
  3. In the Services window, scroll down to the Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) service.
    Windows WIA service
  4. Double-click the service.
  5. Make sure the Startup type is Automatic, and if the service is not running, click Start.
  6. Select the Log On tab.
  7. Select the Local System account radio button and mark the checkbox to Allow service to interact with the desktop.
    WIA serive log on type
  8. Click the OK button to confirm, and close the Services window.

If this does not fix the connection error, try disabling all other Imaging devices in the Device Manager.

How to fix “Make sure that ScanSnap is not being used by another user or application, and then try again.” error

This error may show in the ScanSnap software if the program cannot access the scanner. First, try the steps from the connect error.

If that does not work, try connecting the scanner directly to a (different) USB port on the computer. Don’t use a USB hub or a WiFi connection. Also, test the USB cable if you suspect it may be faulty.

If you are using the ScanSnap Manager software, you can run the ScanSnap support tool to check the access privileges for the scanner device. Start the support tool from the Start menu in the ScanSnap Manager group. In the support tool, select the Recover tab (1) and then click the Check button (2).
Check ScanSnap connection

After this, click the Recover button to find out if the problem has been resolved.

If the ScanSnap iX500 still supported by Fujitsu?

Even though the iX500 is considered a discontinued product, it is still being supported until January 31, 2024. Until this date software updates will still support the iX500. The recommended successor model is the iX1500, but even that model is scheduled to be discontinued by December 31, 2025.

Can I use other scanning software with my ScanSnap iX500?

Unfortunately, not. The scanner uses a driver that does not support the common TWAIN or ISIS standards for scanning devices. As a result, the iX500 will not show up as a scanning or imaging device in other scan applications. The ScanSnap Manager or ScanSnap Home software is required, which uses the Windows Imaging Acquisition driver.

A company called JSE Imaging Solutions has a TWAIN driver (SnapTwain) that works in combination with Fujitsu ScanSnap Home software. At EUR 99, it is a relatively expensive solution, but if you really need TWAIN support, you could try this option.

How to Uninstall Devices in Windows

All hardware in a Windows PC is registered as a hardware device. Windows uses device drivers to communicate with these hardware devices. New drivers are added when new hardware is detected. New drivers can be installed automatically if device support is included with Windows. If not, drivers need to be installed manually. But what happens if you remove a hardware device or no longer use a device? Do you need to uninstall devices in Windows, or does that happen automatically?

For onboard hardware, like a CPU, bus controllers, and similar hardware, it is simple. The hardware is present in the system, so the device and driver need to be configured in Windows. But for external hardware (printers, scanners, mobile phones, and others) this is not straightforward. A lot of external devices are connected through USB, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi. There is no automatic way to know if these devices are still being used.

Steps to uninstall devices in Windows

When a device is either present in a PC or connected to the PC, the device will show up in the Device Manager. To uninstall the device the Device Manager can be used. Right-clicking a device in the Device Manager will show a popup menu with the option to uninstall it. When selected, you can also confirm whether the driver software should be removed.

But what if the device is no longer present in the PC? Or the hardware is not connected and not available anymore? In that case, the device will not show up in the Windows Device Manager. But the device configuration and driver still exist on the system.

To remove a device from Windows when the hardware is no longer present, we first need to tell Windows to show these non-present devices in the Device Manager.

Note: These instructions apply to all Windows versions. Variations in the text on buttons, confirmations, and popup menus can be present.

  1. Press the Windows + R keys to show the Run dialog.
  2. Type cmd, click the Run button, or press Enter to open a Command Prompt window.
  3. In the Command Prompt window, type set devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1 and press Enter.
    What this does is set an environment variable in Windows that is used by the Device Manager to show the non-present devices.
    Tip: Type set and press Enter to see all environment variables. This allows you to check that the value was set properly.
  4. Close the Command Prompt window by typing exit and pressing Enter.
    Note: For Windows 7 and earlier, skip this step, as Windows clears the devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices flag automatically when the Command Prompt window is closed.
  5. Next, open the Device Manager. Either use the Start menu or type devmgmt.msc in the Run box like in step 1.
  6. In Device Manager, click the View menu and then click Show hidden devices.

    Show hidden devices in Windows 
    You will now be able to see devices that are not connected to the computer.
  7. Expand the category for the device to uninstall.
    Non-present devices will show with a grayed-out icon.
    Non-present Devices in Device Manager
  8. Right-click a non-present device.
  9. In the popup menu, choose Uninstall device.
    Uninstall hardware devices
  10. Confirm the removal of the device by clicking the Uninstall button in the Uninstall Device window.
    Confirm Device Uninstall
    Note: For some devices, the Uninstall Device confirmation window will also show a checkbox to delete the driver software for the device. Select that if the driver for the device is no longer needed.
  11. The Device Manager window will refresh and the uninstalled device will no longer be shown.
  12. Close the Device Manager window when done.

Why uninstall devices in Windows?

The need to uninstall a device in Windows is not common. In many cases, hardware devices are managed automatically, or only need to be dealt with one time during installation.

But there are two cases where uninstalling a device is required.

Reset the hardware device

If a device is showing an error or is not functioning properly, it can often be a problem with the device configuration or the driver software. Using the steps to uninstall a device in Windows, the device configuration is reset and the driver can also be reloaded (with the driver software uninstall option). Many device-related errors can be solved this way, so knowing how to uninstall a device in Windows can be very useful.

Solve error code 49

Error case 49 in the device manager means that Windows cannot start a new hardware device. This is a specific error that can occur when a new device is added and needs to be configured. All device configuration is stored in the Windows Registry. And since device information is critical for Windows to operate, the configuration details are stored in the System Hive. This is the core part of the Windows Registry that is kept in memory for quick access.

If the System Hive grows too large, it will exceed the size limit. That will then result in error code 49 if a device is attempted to be started. This error happens more on older Windows versions, simply because resource limits and size limits for the registry storage space could be a problem.

If a device shows a code 49 error, the solution is often to remove all non-present devices to free up space in the System Hive. If that does not solve the problem, try cleaning up the registry to free up more space.

How to Update Realtek Bluetooth Driver – Windows 11

Realtek Bluetooth

The Bluetooth interface is used on Windows 11 (and Windows 10) systems to connect Bluetooth devices. Mobile phones, speakers, printers, or even another computer. Bluetooth wireless communication is ideal for short-range wireless communication. And like all hardware devices in Windows, the Bluetooth device needs a Bluetooth driver to function. The most common Bluetooth chips used in PCs are from Intel and Realtek.

If no driver is installed, Windows will not recognize the device, or Bluetooth will not function properly. So, if Bluetooth is not working in Windows 11, you might need to update the Bluetooth driver. In this article, we’ll show you how to update the Realtek Bluetooth driver. Of course, we also have instructions on updating the Intel Bluetooth driver.

Note: These instructions apply to both Windows 10 and Windows 11. It is important to update the Realtek Bluetooth driver on Windows 10 already, since the upgrade to a later Windows version can be blocked because of an old driver!

Windows 10 Update Problem Realtek Bluetooth

Updated Bluetooth drivers can solve this type of problem. Updated drivers will also make sure that any known bugs in previous versions are fixed, and performance and connectivity are maximized.

Automatically Update Drivers

Windows 10 and Windows 11 include support for a lot of devices by default. Drivers for the devices are either included in the Windows installation or retrieved during the Windows Update process.

If the Realtek Bluetooth driver needs to be updated, the first step is to run Windows Update. Also make sure that drivers updates are included in Windows Update, as automatic driver updates can be disabled in Windows!

Apart from Windows Update, a driver can also be updated from the Device Manager in Windows 11 directly.

  1. Press the Windows + R keys to bring up the run dialog box.
  2. Type devmgmt.msc in the Run field and press Enter or click the OK button.
  3. In the Device Manager window, locate the device for which to update the driver. Right-click the device, and in the context menu select Update driver.
    Update Realtek Bluetooth driver
  4. Next select the option to let Windows Search automatically for drivers.
  5. Click the Close button when done.

For more details, also see installing driver updates using the Device Manager in Windows 11.

Another method to automatically update Windows drivers is to use the DriverFinder program. This software automatically scans all hardware devices in your PC and then recommends the appropriate device drivers for them. It will not just update the Realtek Bluetooth drivers, but allow you to update all your device drivers.

Manually Update the Realtek Bluetooth Driver

Manually updating drivers in Windows means downloading the driver installation files and running an installer or updating the driver from the Device Manager.

Driver files for Bluetooth devices can be available on the PC manufacturer’s website or the Realtek website. First, visit the support site of your PC manufacturer and check for updated drivers of your model. If they are not available, or still not the latest version, you can visit the Realtek website.

Realtek offers support for most of its devices online. This support includes the option to download Windows drivers for many of their devices.

Using the Realtek Support site

  1. Open a web browser and navigate to the Realtek software download page.
  2. On the Realtek web page, use the Product Line dropdown box to select Wireless Lan ICs.
    Realtek Wireless device support
    Note: Bluetooth is a wireless technology, so support is combined with Wi-Fi devices.
  3. Now select the Realtek Wireless LAN IC from the list on the web page that matches the device in your PC. Click the Software link next to it.
    Realtek Wireless LAN ICs
  4. On the specific Realtek LAN IC software page, locate the Bluetooth driver you need and click the download icon.
    Download Realtek Bluetooth driver
    Note: Most onboard Bluetooth solutions use a PCI Express implementation. External, pluggable solutions will use the USB option.
  5. On the Agree the Terms and Download page, select the checkbox I accept the above and then click the Download this file button.
  6. Finally, enter the Captcha and click the Go button.
    Realtek download Captcha
  7. Wait for the file to be downloaded and if required, select the location on disk to save the file. (This will depend on the browser being used.)
  8. Open a File Explorer and browse to the downloaded file. If the downloaded file is executable (EXE file extension), simply double-click the file to execute the driver installation and follow the on-screen instructions.
  9. If the downloaded file is an archive (ZIP file extension), right-click the file and select Extract All in the context menu.
    Extract Realtek driver files
  10. Select the location where to extract the files, and then click the Extract button.
    Extract ZIP archive
    Note: The default suggestion is okay in general, as it is a subfolder of the file’s current location.
  11. Double-click the subfolder in the opened File Explorer
  12. Now locate the setup.exe file in the subfolder and double-click it to execute the driver installation process. Follow the instructions on screen.
    Realtek Bluettoth Driver Installer

With the above instructions, you can download and install updated Realtek Bluetooth drivers for Windows. This should solve any issues you have with Realtek Bluetooth not working in Windows 11.

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